Spruce Pine Fir

Other names

A large number of softwood trees that grow in Canada and the United States have virtually identical characteristics for constructional purposes. These trees are sawn, planed and graded for strength all together. The major group is referred to as spruce pine fir (SPF). This is the lumber from:

  • spruce = Picea div. spec.
  • pine = Pinus div. spec.
  • fir = Abies div. spec.
Major species in the spruce-pine-fir group are: engelmann spruce, white spruce, lodgepole pine, pine fir and also, to a lesser degree, black spruce, balsam fir and jack pine. These species are also included among the soft pines from the United States .

Botanical name

Abies div. spec. Picea div. spec. Pinus div. spec.



Growing zone

Canada and the United States. 
spruce pine fir

Tree description

Height generally 20-60 m with a diameter of 0.4-1.2 m


Squared, rectangular wood planed to measure.

Wood description

It’s colour is light yellow to light brown. SPF is graded into construction wood in accordance with American Lumber Standards (ALS) and Canadian Lumber Standards (CLS). These standards set requirements of the exactness of dimensions and the selection of the produced wood into strength classes based on the natural imperfections. Stamping each piece of the selected class makes checking for the right strength far easier. SPF construction wood is generally rectangular, planed to measure, with rounded-off corners.

Special features

Wood type: softwood 
Grain: Straight 
Texture: Fine 
Volumic mass: (350-) 400 (-500) kg/m3 at 12% moisture content. 
Warp: Moderate 
Drying: SPF is imported after accelerated drying. 
Workability: Can be sawn and planed without too many problems. 
Nailing and screwing: Good 
Gluing: Good 
Bending: Moderate to poor 
Surface finishing: Good 
Impregnability: Heartwood and sapwood 1-4 


The SPF standard dimensions are eminently suitable for floors, beams and trussing in wooden frame constructions.

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